Judo is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budo) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an opponent to submit by joint locking the elbow or by applying a choke.
Strikes and thrusts (by hands and feet) - as well as weapons defenses - are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori).
Ultimately, the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for almost all modern Japanese martial arts that developed from "traditional" schools (koryu).
History & PhilosophyThe early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kano Jigoro (1860–1938). He based the technique on jujutsu.
What does the word judo mean?
While judo includes a variety of rolls, falls, throws, hold downs, chokes, joint-locks, and strikes, the primary focus is on throwing (nage-waza), and groundwork (ne-waza). Throws are divided in two groups of techniques, standing techniques (tachi-waza), and sacrifice techniques (sutemi-waza). Standing techniques are further divided into hand techniques ( te-waza), hip techniques ( koshi-waza), and foot and leg techniques (ashi-waza).
Sacrifice techniques are divided into those in which the thrower falls directly backwards (a-sutemi-waza), and those in which he falls onto his side yoko-sutemi-waza).
The ground fighting techniques are divided into attacks
against the joints or joint locks (kansetsu-waza), strangleholds
or chokeholds (shime-waza), and holding or pinning techniques
STYLESKano Jigoro's Kodokan Judo is the most popular and well-known style of judo, but is not the only one. The terms judo and jujutsu were quite interchangeable in the early years, so some of these forms of judo are still known as jujutsu or jiu-jitsu either for that reason, or simply to differentiate them from mainstream judo. From Kano's original style of judo related forms have evolved, some now widely considered as distinct arts:
• Olympic Judo: This is the predominant form of Kodokan judo.
• Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Mitsuyo Maeda introduced judo to Brazil in 1914. Maeda taught judo to Carlos Gracie (1902–1994) and others in Brazil. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu did not follow later changes in international judo rules that were added to emphasise the standing phase of the fight, nor those rules that were introduced to ban the more dangerous techniques.
• Judo-do: In Austria, Julius Fleck and others developed a system of throwing intended to extend judo that they called Judo-do.
• Kawaishi-ryu jujutsu: Teaching in France, Mikonosuke Kawaishi developed Kawaishi-ryu jujutsu as an alternative approach to instruction that continued to teach many techniques banned in modern Olympic/Kodokan Judo competition.
• Kosen Judo: As a sub-style of Kodokan Judo that became popularised in early 20th century Japanese inter-scholastic competition, Kosen style has the same range of techniques but greater latitude is permitted for ground technique. This style of judo is much closer to the original early 1900s judo than current Olympic judo is.
• Russian Judo: This distinctive style of judo was influenced by Sambo. It is represented by well-known coaches such as Alexander Retuinskih and Igor Yakimov, and mixed martial arts fighters such as Igor Zinoviev, Fedor Emelianenko and Karo Parisyan. In turn, Russian judo has influenced mainstream judo, with techniques such as the flying armbar being accepted into Kodokan judo.
• Sambo (especially Sport Sambo): Vasili Oshchepkov was the first European judo black belt under Kano. Oshchepkov went on to create Sambo from judo's influence, integrating other combative techniques into his new system. Oshchepkov died during the political purges of 1937 for refusing to deny his education in Japanese judo under Kano. In their History of Sambo, Dr. Brett Jacques and Scott Anderson wrote that in Russia "judo and SOMBO were considered to be the same thing" - albeit with a different uniform and some differences in the rules.